Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania in East Africa. It is composed of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres off the coast of the mainland, and consists of many small islands and two large ones: Unguja (the main island, referred to informally as Zanzibar) is 60 miles long and 20 miles wide. Pemba Island is slightly smaller at 42 miles long and 14 miles wide. The capital is Zanzibar City, located on the island of Unguja. Its historic centre is Stone Town, which is a World Heritage Site.
Zanzibar’s main industries are spices, raffia, and tourism. In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper. For this reason, the Zanzibar Archipelago is sometimes called the “Spice Islands”
The population is about 1 million people, most of whom are Muslims. The average annual income is £350. About half the population lives below the poverty line.